Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Accipitriformes > Accipitridae > Haliaeetus > Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)

Synonyms: Falco leucocephalus (homotypic)
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, from Greek hali "sea", aiētos "eagle", leuco "white", cephalos "head") is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two known subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States, and northern Mexico. It is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting.
View Wikipedia Record: Haliaeetus leucocephalus


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.19671
EDGE Score: 2.10373


Adult Weight [1]  10.45 lbs (4.74 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  117 grams
Female Weight [6]  11.795 lbs (5.35 kg)
Male Weight [6]  9.105 lbs (4.13 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [6]  29.5 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Wetlands
Wintering Geography [2]  Widespread U.S./Canada
Wintering Habitat [2]  Wetlands, Coastal saltmarshes
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Ectothermic [4]  20 %
Diet - Endothermic [4]  30 %
Diet - Fish [4]  30 %
Diet - Scavenger [4]  20 %
Forages - Aerial [4]  10 %
Forages - Canopy [4]  10 %
Forages - Mid-High [4]  10 %
Forages - Ground [4]  30 %
Forages - Water Surface [4]  40 %
Clutch Size [7]  2
Clutches / Year [5]  1
Fledging [1]  74 days
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  250,000
Incubation [5]  35 days
Maximum Longevity [5]  48 years
Snout to Vent Length [1]  31 inches (80 cm)
Wing Span [8]  7.544 feet (2.3 m)
Female Maturity [5]  4 years
Male Maturity [5]  4 years


Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (249)


Important Bird Areas

Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Chehalis River Estuary Canada A4i
Squamish River Area Canada A4ii

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Habitat Vegetation Classification

Name Location  Website 
Bald-cypress - Water Tupelo Floodplain Forest United States (Louisiana, Missouri, Illinois, Tennessee, Texas, Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi)
Bald-cypress Floodplain Forest United States (Missouri, Texas, Virginia, Illinois, North Carolina, Florida, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Georgia, Arkansas, Indiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky)
Water Tupelo Swamp Forest United States (Tennessee, Arkansas, Georgia, Texas, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, South Carolina, Missouri, Mississippi, Alabama)
West Gulf Coastal Plain Wet Longleaf Pine Savanna (High Terraces Type) United States (Louisiana)

Emblem of

United States

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap


Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[9]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[18]


Range Map

External References

NatureServe Explorer


Attributes / relations provided by
1Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
6Palmer, RS 1962–1988 Handbook of North American Birds. Yale University Press, New Haven CT. Volumes 1–5
7Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
8Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series, Alaska Department of Fish and Game
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
11Conepatus leuconotus (Carnivora: Mephitidae), JERRY W. DRAGOO AND STEVEN R. SHEFFIELD, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 827:1–8 (2009)
12Geomys bursarius (Rodentia: Geomyidae), MATTHEW B. CONNIOR, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(879):104–117 (2011)
13Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177
14Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
15Sylvilagus palustris, Joseph A. Chapman and Gale R. Willner, Mammalian Species No. 153, pp. 1-3 (1981)
16Spermophilus richardsonii, Gail R. Michener and James W. Koeppl, Mammalian Species No. 243, pp. 1-8, (1985)
17Alopex lagopus, Alexandra M. Audet, C. Brian Robbins, and Serge Larivière, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 713, pp. 1–10 (2002)
18Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
19Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2020-03-21; License: CC BY 4.0