Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Procyonidae > Procyon > Procyon lotor

Procyon lotor (Raccoon; common raccoon; northern raccoon)

Synonyms: Procyon nanus; Procyon priscus; Procyon simus; Ursus lotor (homotypic)
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The raccoon (/rəˈkuːn/ or US /ræˈkuːn/, Procyon lotor), sometimes spelled racoon, also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, northern raccoon and colloquially as coon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America. The raccoon is the largest of the procyonid family, having a body length of 40 to 70 cm (16 to 28 in) and a body weight of 3.5 to 9 kg (8 to 20 lb). Its grayish coat mostly consists of dense underfur which insulates it against cold weather. Two of the raccoon's most distinctive features are its extremely dexterous front paws and its facial mask, which are themes in the mythology of several Native American ethnic groups. Raccoons are noted for their intelligence, with studies showing that they are able to remember the solution to tasks for up to three years. The
View Wikipedia Record: Procyon lotor


Invasive Species

View ISSG Record: Procyon lotor

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.71
EDGE Score: 2.27


Adult Weight [1]  13.228 lbs (6.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  80 grams
Male Weight [3]  11.31 lbs (5.13 kg)
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Ectothermic [2]  20 %
Diet - Fruit [2]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  40 %
Diet - Seeds [2]  20 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Gestation [1]  63 days
Litter Size [1]  4
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  21 years
Nocturnal [4]  Yes
Snout to Vent Length [3]  24 inches (60 cm)
Weaning [1]  3 months 1 day


Protected Areas

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Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Habitat Vegetation Classification

Name Location  Website 
Bald-cypress - Water Tupelo Floodplain Forest United States (Louisiana, Missouri, Illinois, Tennessee, Texas, Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi)
Bald-cypress Floodplain Forest United States (Missouri, Texas, Virginia, Illinois, North Carolina, Florida, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Georgia, Arkansas, Indiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky)
Central Interior Buttonbush Pond United States (Tennessee, Indiana, West Virginia, Kansas, Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois, Alabama, Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma)
Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Ulmus crassifolia - Celtis laevigata Floodplain Forest United States (Oklahoma, Arkansas)
Maple - Ash - Elm Swamp Canada (Ontario); United States (Wisconsin, New York, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Indiana)
Midwest Mixed Emergent Deep Marsh United States (Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Nebraska, Alabama, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, North Dakota, Iowa, Michigan, South Dakota, Kentucky, Illinois); Canada (Ontario)
Midwestern Cottonwood - Black Willow - Silver Maple Floodplain Forest United States (Iowa, Wisconsin, Indiana, Nebraska, Kansas, Kentucky, Ohio, Missouri, Minnesota, Michigan, Oklahoma, Illinois)
Overcup Oak - Sweetgum Bottomland Forest United States (Louisiana, Missouri, Indiana, Arkansas, Texas, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Mississippi)
Pin Oak - Post Oak Lowland Flatwoods United States (Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Arkansas)
Red Maple - Water-locust Mixed Bottomland Forest United States (Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky)
River Birch - Sycamore Small River Floodplain Forest United States (Oklahoma, Iowa, Kentucky, Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, West Virginia, Missouri, Ohio)
Silver Maple - Sugarberry - Pecan Floodplain Forest United States (Arkansas, Mississippi, Indiana, Tennessee, Illinois, Kentucky)
Southeast Coastal Plain Buttonbush Pond United States (Texas, Georgia, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, South Carolina, Louisiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina)
Southern Green Ash - Elm - Sugarberry Floodplain Forest United States (Tennessee, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Indiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, Illinois)
Sugar Maple - Hickory Mesic Floodplain Forest United States (Tennessee, Ohio, Illinois, Kentucky)
Swamp Chestnut Oak - Sweetgum Mesic Floodplain Forest United States (Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Missouri)
Water Tupelo Swamp Forest United States (Tennessee, Arkansas, Georgia, Texas, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, South Carolina, Missouri, Mississippi, Alabama)
West Gulf Coastal Plain Wet Longleaf Pine Savanna (High Terraces Type) United States (Louisiana)
Willow Oak Bottomland Flatwoods Forest United States (Mississippi, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois)

Emblem of


Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

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Range Map

External References

NatureServe Explorer


Attributes / relations provided by
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3Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
5Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177
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10Neurotrichus gibbsii, L. N. Carraway and B. J. Verts, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 387, pp. 1-7 (1991)
11Seed predation and dispersal in a dominant desert plant: Opuntia, ants, birds, and mammals, Mario González-Espinosa and Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio, Frugivores and Seed Dispersal (eds A. Estrada & T. H. Fleming.), pp. 273–284. Dr W. Junk, Publishers, Dordrecht.
12Oryzomys palustris, James L. Wolfe, Mammalian Species No. 176, pp. 1-5 (1982)
13Spermophilus variegatus, Emily C. Oaks, Paul J. Young, Gordon L. Kirkland, Jr., and David F. Schmidt, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 272, pp. 1-8 (1987)
14Sciurus niger, John L. Koprowski, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 479, pp. 1-9 (1994)
15Sylvilagus audubonii, Joseph A. Chapman and Gale R. Willner, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 106, pp. 1-4 (1978)
16Tadarida brasiliensis, Kenneth T. Wilkins, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 331, pp. 1-10 (1989)
17Zapus princeps, E. Blake Hart, Mark C. Belk, Eralee Jordan, and Malinda W. Gonzalez, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 749, pp. 1–7 (2004)
184.2 Red wolf, Canis rufus, B.T. Kelly, A. Beyer and M.K. Phillips, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp.
19Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
20Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
21International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2020-03-21; License: CC BY 4.0