Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Cervidae > Odocoileus > Odocoileus virginianus

Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)

Synonyms: Cervus virginianus; Dama virginianus (homotypic); Odocoileus cooki; Odocoileus sheridanus
Language: French; Spanish


Invasive Species

View ISSG Record: Odocoileus virginianus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.99
EDGE Score: 1.79


Adult Weight [1]  191.803 lbs (87.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  6.614 lbs (3.00 kg)
Male Weight [3]  98.768 lbs (44.80 kg)
Diet [2]  Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Plants [2]  90 %
Diet - Seeds [2]  10 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Female Maturity [1]  10 months 9 days
Male Maturity [1]  1 year 1 month
Gestation [1]  6 months 18 days
Litter Size [1]  2
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  22 years
Snout to Vent Length [3]  5.937 feet (181 cm)
Speed [4]  29.997 MPH (13.41 m/s)
Weaning [1]  4 months 9 days


Protected Areas

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Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Habitat Vegetation Classification

Name Location  Website 
Black Oak - White Oak - Hickory Forest Canada (Ontario); United States (Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa)
Central Limestone Glade United States (Virginia, Indiana, Ohio, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Illinois, Georgia)
Central Post Oak Dry Barrens United States (Arkansas, Indiana, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky)
Central Shale Glade United States (Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, Indiana)
Interior Highlands Shortleaf Pine - Black Oak Forest United States (Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Oklahoma)
Interior Low Plateau Beech - Maple Forest United States (Alabama, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee, Illinois, Missouri)
Interior Low Plateau Chestnut Oak Forest United States (Tennessee, Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana)
Maple - Ash - Elm Swamp Canada (Ontario); United States (Wisconsin, New York, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Indiana)
Midwest Post Oak - Blackjack Oak Forest United States (Oklahoma, Missouri, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Arkansas)
Midwestern Cottonwood - Black Willow - Silver Maple Floodplain Forest United States (Iowa, Wisconsin, Indiana, Nebraska, Kansas, Kentucky, Ohio, Missouri, Minnesota, Michigan, Oklahoma, Illinois)
Overcup Oak - Sweetgum Bottomland Forest United States (Louisiana, Missouri, Indiana, Arkansas, Texas, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Mississippi)
Pin Oak - Post Oak Lowland Flatwoods United States (Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Arkansas)
Pond-cypress Depression Forest United States (North Carolina, Georgia, South Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Florida)
Post Oak - White Oak Dry-Mesic Barrens United States (Illinois)
Purshia tridentata - Ericameria nauseosa Shrubland United States (Idaho)
Quercus garryana / Carex geyeri Woodland United States (Washington)
Red Maple - Water-locust Mixed Bottomland Forest United States (Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky)
Rosa nutkana - Festuca idahoensis Grassland United States (Washington, Oregon, Idaho)
Shawnee Sandstone Glade United States (Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky)
Silver Maple - Sugarberry - Pecan Floodplain Forest United States (Arkansas, Mississippi, Indiana, Tennessee, Illinois, Kentucky)
Southern Green Ash - Elm - Sugarberry Floodplain Forest United States (Tennessee, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Indiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, Illinois)
Southern Red Oak - Mixed Oak Forest United States (Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee)
Sugar Maple - Hickory Mesic Floodplain Forest United States (Tennessee, Ohio, Illinois, Kentucky)
Swamp Chestnut Oak - Sweetgum Mesic Floodplain Forest United States (Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Missouri)
West Gulf Coastal Plain Wet Longleaf Pine Savanna (High Terraces Type) United States (Louisiana)
White Oak - Mixed Oak Dry-Mesic Alkaline Forest United States (Indiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois, Alabama, Arkansas)
Willow Oak Bottomland Flatwoods Forest United States (Mississippi, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois)

Emblem of

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

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Range Map

External References

NatureServe Explorer


Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
4Wikipedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
5Study of Northern Virginia Ecology
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
74.2 Red wolf, Canis rufus, B.T. Kelly, A. Beyer and M.K. Phillips, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp.
8Food niche of Puma concolor in central Mexico, Octavio Monroy-Vilchis, Yuriana Gómez, Mariusz Janczur & Vicente Urios, Wildlife Biology 15: 97-105 (2009)
9Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
11International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2020-03-21; License: CC BY 4.0