Pukaskwa National Park

Location:Ontario, Canada
IUCN Category:II
Area:459,860 acres (186,099 hectares)
Species:All  Endangered  Invasive
Website:View website
Climate:View Climate Data
Land Use:View Land Use Data
Köppen climate classification:Dfb (Climate: snow; Precipitation: fully humid; Temperature: warm summer)


Central Canadian Shield forests


Protected Area Boundary
Share 70 %30 %
Soil TypeAlbic LuvisolsOrthic PodzolsLithosols
Topsoil TextureFineCoarseMedium
Reference Depth100 cm100 cm10 cm
DrainageModerately wellSomewhat excessiveImperfectly
Available Water Capacity150 m50 m15 mm
Phase 1 Stony 
Topsoil Properties
Gravel4 %4 %26 %
Sand56 %85 %43 %
Silt22 %11 %34 %
Clay22 %4 %23 %
USDA TextureSandy clay loamLoamy sandLoam
Reference Bulk Density1.42 g/cm³1.73 g/cm³1.39 g/cm³
Bulk Density1.34 g/cm³1.36 g/cm³1.3 g/cm³
Organic Carbon1.11 %2.09 %1.4 %
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity36 cmol kg⁻¹98 cmol kg⁻¹42 cmol kg⁻¹
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity22 cmol kg⁻¹10 cmol kg⁻¹15 cmol kg⁻¹
Base Saturation87 %16 %100 %
Total Exchangeable Bases18.4 cmol kg⁻¹2.5 cmol kg⁻¹15.6 cmol kg⁻¹
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 %3.9 %
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 %0 %
Exchangeable Sodium1 %1 %4 %
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1
Subsoil Properties
Gravel8 %5 % 
Sand48 %84 % 
Silt20 %11 % 
Clay32 %5 % 
USDA TextureSandy clay loamLoamy sand 
Reference Bulk Density1.35 g/cm³1.7 g/cm³ 
Bulk Density1.38 g/cm³1.51 g/cm³ 
Organic Carbon0.54 %0.59 % 
Clay Cation Exchange Capacity37 cmol kg⁻¹63 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Soil Cation Exchange Capacity21 cmol kg⁻¹4 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Base Saturation92 %23 % 
Total Exchangeable Bases21 cmol kg⁻¹1.6 cmol kg⁻¹ 
Calcium Carbonate0 %0 % 
Calcium Sulphate0 %0 % 
Exchangeable Sodium1 %2 % 
Electrical Conductivity0.1 dS m-10.1 dS m-1 
Soil data provided by FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
Köppen climate classification provided by Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification updated. Meteorol. Z., 15, 259-263