Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Columbiformes > Columbidae > Columba > Columba livia

Columba livia (Rock Pigeon; Rock Dove; Common Pigeon; pigeon biset)

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Wikipedia Abstract

The rock dove or rock pigeon (/ˈpɪdʒ.ən/ also /ˈpɪdʒ.ɪn/; Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae (doves and pigeons). In common usage, this bird is often simply referred to as the "pigeon". The species includes the domestic pigeon, including the fancy pigeon. Escaped domestic pigeons have given rise to populations of feral pigeons around the world.
View Wikipedia Record: Columba livia


Invasive Species

View ISSG Record: Columba livia

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.51029
EDGE Score: 1.70662


Adult Weight [1]  334 grams
Birth Weight [3]  15 grams
Female Weight [5]  270 grams
Male Weight [5]  307 grams
Weight Dimorphism [5]  13.7 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Generalist, Agricultural
Wintering Geography [2]  Non-migrartory
Wintering Habitat [2]  Generalist, Agricultural
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  10 %
Diet - Plants [4]  30 %
Diet - Seeds [4]  60 %
Forages - Understory [4]  20 %
Forages - Ground [4]  80 %
Clutch Size [6]  2
Clutches / Year [3]  3
Fledging [5]  31 days
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  150,000,000
Incubation [3]  18 days
Mating Display [7]  Ground and non-acrobatic aerial display
Mating System [7]  Monogamy
Maximum Longevity [3]  35 years
Speed [8]  36.641 MPH (16.38 m/s)
Wing Span [9]  27 inches (.69 m)
Female Maturity [3]  4 months 20 days
Male Maturity [3]  4 months 20 days


Protected Areas

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Biodiversity Hotspots

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap

Full list (194)
Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Coracina novaehollandiae (Black-faced Cuckooshrike)2
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)2
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)2
Scythrops novaehollandiae (Channel-billed Cuckoo)2



Range Map

External References

NatureServe Explorer


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Attributes / relations provided by
1Storchová, Lenka; Hořák, David (2018), Data from: Life-history characteristics of European birds, Dryad, Dataset,
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
6Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
7Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
8Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
10"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
13Olsen, J., Judge, D., Fuentes, E., Rose, AB and Debus, S. (2010). Diets of Wedge-tailed Eagles (Aquila audax) and Little Eagles (Hieraaetus morphnoides) breeding near Canberra, Australia Journal of Raptor Research 44: 50–61
14Pande, S. & N. Dahanukar (2011). The diet of Indian Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis and its agronomic significance. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(8): 2011–2017.
15Naoroji, R. (2011). Breeding of the Red-headed Falcon Falco chicquera in Saurashtra, Gujarat, India. Forktail, 27, 1-6.
16Olsen, J., E. Fuentes, DM Bird, AB Rose, and D. Judge. 2008. Dietary shifts based upon prey availability in Peregrine Falcons and Australian Hobbies breeding near Canberra, Australia Journal of Raptor Research 42:125–137
17THE PARASITIC FAUNA AND THE FOOD HABITS OF THE WILD JUNGLE CAT FELIS CHAUS FURAX DE WINTON, 1898 IN IRAQ, Mohammad K. Mohammad, Bull. Iraq nat. Hist. Mus. (2008) 10(2): 65-78
18Conservation status and limiting factors in the endangered population of Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in the Canary Islands, José A. Donázar, César J. Palacios, Laura Gangoso, Olga Ceballos, María J. González and Fernando Hiraldo, Biological Conservation 107 (2002) 89–97
19Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
20International Flea Database
21Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2020-03-21; License: CC BY 4.0