Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Galliformes > Phasianidae > Bonasa > Bonasa umbellus

Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)

Synonyms: Tetrao umbellus
Language: French

Wikipedia Abstract

The ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) is a medium-sized grouse occurring in forests from the Appalachian Mountains across Canada to Alaska. It is non-migratory. It is the only species in the genus Bonasa. The ruffed grouse is sometimes incorrectly referred to as a "partridge", an unrelated phasianid, and occasionally confused with the grey partridge, a bird of open areas rather than woodlands. The ruffed grouse is the state bird of Pennsylvania, United States.
View Wikipedia Record: Bonasa umbellus


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 10.9995
EDGE Score: 2.48487


Adult Weight [1]  1.193 lbs (541 g)
Birth Weight [3]  12 grams
Female Weight [1]  1.098 lbs (498 g)
Male Weight [7]  1.248 lbs (566 g)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  17.5 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Boreal forests, Temperate eastern forests, Temperate western forests
Wintering Geography [2]  Non-migrartory
Wintering Habitat [2]  Boreal forests, Temperate eastern forests, Temperate western forests
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [4]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  10 %
Diet - Plants [4]  70 %
Forages - Understory [4]  40 %
Forages - Ground [4]  60 %
Female Maturity [3]  4 months
Male Maturity [3]  4 months
Clutch Size [5]  11
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  18,000,000
Incubation [3]  24 days
Mating System [6]  Promiscuity
Maximum Longevity [3]  11 years
Snout to Vent Length [1]  18 inches (46 cm)


Protected Areas

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Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No

Emblem of


Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap



Alnus rubra (red alder)[8]
Salix alaxensis (feltleaf willow)[8]


Range Map

External References

NatureServe Explorer


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Provided by eNature via Myxer Author: Lang Elliot


Attributes / relations provided by
1Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
7Rusch, DH, DeStefano, S., Reynolds, MC & Lauten, D. 2000: Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus). - In: Poole, A. & Gill, F. (Eds.); The Birds of North America, No 515. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 28 pp
8Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10Prey Abundance, Space Use, Demography, and Foraging Habitat of Northern Goshawks in Western Washington, Thomas David Bloxton, Jr., University of Washington 2002
11Davis, H., and RJ Cannings. 2008. Diet of Western Screech-Owls in the interior of British Columbia British Columbia Birds 18:19-22
12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
13International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2023-06-13; License: CC BY 4.0