Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Accipitriformes > Accipitridae > Buteo > Buteo lineatus

Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk)

Synonyms: Calohierax quadratus; Falco lineatus (homotypic)
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus) is a medium-sized hawk. Its breeding range spans eastern North America and along the coast of California and northern to northeastern-central Mexico. Red-shouldered hawks are permanent residents throughout most of their range, though northern birds do migrate, mostly to central Mexico. The main conservation threat to the widespread species is deforestation.
View Wikipedia Record: Buteo lineatus


Buteo lineatus alleni (Florida red-shouldered hawk)
Buteo lineatus elegans (Western red-shouldered hawk)
Buteo lineatus extimus (Key red-shouldered hawk)
Buteo lineatus lineatus (Eastern red-shouldered hawk) (Attributes)
Buteo lineatus texanus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.76319
EDGE Score: 1.75149


Adult Weight [1]  1.34 lbs (608 g)
Birth Weight [3]  35 grams
Female Weight [1]  1.493 lbs (677 g)
Male Weight [1]  1.188 lbs (539 g)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  25.6 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Temperate eastern forests, Temperate western forests
Wintering Geography [2]  Southern U.S.
Wintering Habitat [2]  Temperate eastern forests, Temperate western forests
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Diet - Ectothermic [4]  40 %
Diet - Endothermic [4]  40 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  20 %
Forages - Mid-High [4]  33 %
Forages - Understory [4]  33 %
Forages - Ground [4]  33 %
Clutch Size [5]  3
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Fledging [1]  42 days
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  1,600,000
Incubation [3]  33 days
Mating Display [6]  Acrobatic aerial display
Maximum Longevity [3]  20 years
Snout to Vent Length [1]  17 inches (43 cm)
Wing Span [7]  39 inches (1 m)
Female Maturity [3]  1 year
Male Maturity [3]  1 year


Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (144)


Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Habitat Vegetation Classification

Name Location  Website 
Maple - Ash - Elm Swamp Canada (Ontario); United States (Wisconsin, New York, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Indiana)
Mesic Coastal Plain Oak Forest United States (Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey)
Midwestern Cottonwood - Black Willow - Silver Maple Floodplain Forest United States (Iowa, Wisconsin, Indiana, Nebraska, Kansas, Kentucky, Ohio, Missouri, Minnesota, Michigan, Oklahoma, Illinois)
Northeast Red Maple Acidic Swamp Forest Canada; United States (New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Vermont)
Overcup Oak - Sweetgum Bottomland Forest United States (Louisiana, Missouri, Indiana, Arkansas, Texas, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Mississippi)
Pin Oak - Post Oak Lowland Flatwoods United States (Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Arkansas)
Red Maple - Water-locust Mixed Bottomland Forest United States (Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky)
River Birch - Sycamore Small River Floodplain Forest United States (Oklahoma, Iowa, Kentucky, Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, West Virginia, Missouri, Ohio)
Silver Maple - Sugarberry - Pecan Floodplain Forest United States (Arkansas, Mississippi, Indiana, Tennessee, Illinois, Kentucky)
Southern Green Ash - Elm - Sugarberry Floodplain Forest United States (Tennessee, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Indiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, Illinois)
Sugar Maple - Hickory Mesic Floodplain Forest United States (Tennessee, Ohio, Illinois, Kentucky)
Swamp Chestnut Oak - Sweetgum Mesic Floodplain Forest United States (Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Missouri)
West Gulf Coastal Plain Wet Longleaf Pine Savanna (High Terraces Type) United States (Louisiana)
Willow Oak Bottomland Flatwoods Forest United States (Mississippi, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois)

Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap


Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)[8]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[8]


Range Map

External References

NatureServe Explorer


Play / PauseVolume


Attributes / relations provided by
1Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
7del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10Predators of the Swallow-Tailed Kite in Southern Louisiana and Mississippi, Jennifer O. Coulson, Thomas D. Coulson, Sherry A. DeFrancesch, and Thomas W. Sherry, Journal of Raptor Research 42(1):1-12. 2008
11Microtus pinetorum, Michael J. Smolen, Mammalian Species No. 147, pp. 1-7 (1981)
12Myocastor coypus, Charles A. Woods, Luis Contreras, Gale Willner-Chapman, and Howard P. Whidden, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 398, pp. 1-8 (1992)
13Sciurus niger, John L. Koprowski, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 479, pp. 1-9 (1994)
14Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2020-03-21; License: CC BY 4.0