Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Canidae > Canis > Canis lupus

Canis lupus (Wolf; gray wolf)

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Wikipedia Abstract

("Wolf" and "She-wolf" redirect here. For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation) and She-wolf (disambiguation).) The gray wolf or grey wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf or western wolf, is a canid native to the wilderness and remote areas of Eurasia and North America. It is the largest extant member of its family, with males averaging 43–45 kg (95–99 lb), and females 36–38.5 kg (79–85 lb). Like the red wolf, it is distinguished from other Canis species by its larger size and less pointed features, particularly on the ears and muzzle. Its winter fur is long and bushy, and predominantly a mottled gray in color, although nearly pure white, red, or brown to black also occur. As of 2005, 37 subspecies of C. lupus are recognised by MSW3.
View Wikipedia Record: Canis lupus


Canis lupus albus (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus alces (Kenai grey wolf)
Canis lupus arabs (Arabian wolf)
Canis lupus arctos (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus baileyi (Mexican wolf)
Canis lupus beothucus
Canis lupus bernardi (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus campestris (Asian grey wolf)
Canis lupus chanco (Mongolian grey wolf)
Canis lupus columbianus (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus crassodon (Vancouver grey wolf)
Canis lupus desertorum
Canis lupus dingo (domestic dog) (Attributes)
Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog) (Attributes)
Canis lupus filchneri
Canis lupus floridanus
Canis lupus fuscus
Canis lupus gregoryi
Canis lupus griseoalbus (Manitoba Wolf)
Canis lupus hattai (Japanese wolf)
Canis lupus hodophilax (Japanese dwarf wolf (extinct ~1920))
Canis lupus hudsonicus (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus irremotus (Northern Rockies grey wolf)
Canis lupus labradorius (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus laniger
Canis lupus ligoni (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus lupus (European grey wolf)
Canis lupus lycaon (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus mackenzii (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus manningi (Baffin grey wolf)
Canis lupus mediterraneus
Canis lupus mogollonensis
Canis lupus monstrabilis
Canis lupus mosbachensis
Canis lupus nubilus (Plains grey wolf)
Canis lupus occidentalis (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus orion (Greenland Wolf)
Canis lupus pallipes (Indian grey wolf)
Canis lupus pambasileus (Grey wolf)
Canis lupus rufus (Red Wolf) (Critically Endangered) (Attributes)
Canis lupus tundrarum (Tundra wolf)
Canis lupus variabilis
Canis lupus youngi (Southern Rocky Mountain grey wolf)

Invasive Species

View ISSG Record: Canis lupus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.12
EDGE Score: 1.42


Adult Weight [1]  53.599 lbs (24.312 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  450 grams
Female Weight [1]  46.30 lbs (21.001 kg)
Male Weight [1]  60.901 lbs (27.624 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  31.5 %
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Diet - Endothermic [3]  100 %
Forages - Ground [3]  100 %
Female Maturity [2]  1 year 10 months
Male Maturity [2]  1 year 10 months
Gestation [2]  62 days
Litter Size [2]  6
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  21 years
Nocturnal [4]  Yes
Snout to Vent Length [1]  4.166 feet (127 cm)
Speed [5]  34.896 MPH (15.6 m/s)
Weaning [2]  47 days


Protected Areas

+ Click for partial list (100)Full list (433)


Biodiversity Hotspots

Emblem of


Prey / Diet

Prey / Diet Overlap


Canis latrans (Coyote)[7]
Canis lupus (Wolf)[7]
Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)[7]
Galeocerdo cuvier (Tiger-shark)[7]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[7]


Range Map

External References

NatureServe Explorer


Attributes / relations provided by
1Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
5Wikipedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
6Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Bos grunniens and Bos mutus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), DAVID M. LESLIE, JR. AND GEORGE B. SCHALLER, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 836:1–17 (2009)
9Capra cylindricornis, Paul J. Weinberg, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 695, pp. 1–9 (2002)
10Capra sibirica, Alexander K. Fedosenko and David A. Blank, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 675, pp. 1–13 (2001)
11Foraging by lynx and its role in ungulate mortality: the local (Białowieża Forest) and the Palaearctic viewpoints, Włodzimierz JĘDRZEJEWSKI, Krzysztof SCHMIDT, Lech MIŁKOWSKI, Bogumiła JĘDRZEJEWSKA, Henryk OKARMA, Acta Theriologica 38 (4): 385-403
12Capreolus pygargus, Aleksey A. Danilkin, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 512, pp. 1-7 (1995)
13Cercartetus nanus, JAMIE M. HARRIS, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 815:1–10 (2008)
14Cervus nippon, George A. Feldhamer, Mammalian Species No. 128, pp. 1-7 (1980)
15Gazella dorcas, Yoram Yom-Tov, Heinrich Mendelssohn, and Colin P. Groves, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 491, pp. 1-6 (1995)
16Gazella gazella, Heinrich Mendelssohn, Yoram Yom-Tov, and Colin P. Groves, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 490, pp. 1-7 (1995)
17Glaucomys sabrinus, Nancy Wells-Gosling and Lawrence R. Heaney, Mammalian Species No. 229, pp. 1-8 (1984)
18Glis glis (Rodentia: Gliridae), BORIS KRYSTUFEK, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 42(865):195–206 (2010)
19Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service
20Lepus arcticus, Troy L. Best and Travis Hill Henry, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 457, pp. 1-9 (1994)
21Lepus townsendii, Burton K. Lim, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 288, pp. 1-6 (1987)
22Marmota caligata (Rodentia: Sciuridae), JANET K. BRAUN, T. SCOTT EATON, JR., AND MICHAEL A. MARES, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(884):155–171 (2011)
23Martes zibellina (Carnivora: Mustelidae), VLADIMIR G. MONAKHOV, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(876):75–86 (2011)
24Microtus miurus (Rodentia: Cricetidae), F. RUSSELL COLE AND DON E. WILSON, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 42(855):75–89 (2010)
25Nyctereutes procyonoides, Oscar G. Ward and Doris H. Wurster-Hill, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 358, pp. 1-5 (1990)
26Ovis ammon, Alexander K. Fedosenko and David A. Blank, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 773, pp. 1–15 (2005)
27Procapra gutturosa, Vladimir E. Sokolov and Anna A. Lushchekina, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 571, pp. 1-5 (1997)
28Sciurus niger, John L. Koprowski, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 479, pp. 1-9 (1994)
295.5 Corsac, Vulpes corsac, A. Poyarkov and N. Ovsyanikov, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp.
30Alopex lagopus, Alexandra M. Audet, C. Brian Robbins, and Serge Larivière, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 713, pp. 1–10 (2002)
31SPECIES ASSESSMENT FOR SWIFT FOX (VULPES VELOX) IN WYOMING, DARBY N. DARK-SMILEY AND DOUGLAS A. KEINATH, prepared for United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, December 2003
32Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
33Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
34International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2023-06-13; License: CC BY 4.0