Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Alaudidae > Eremophila > Eremophila alpestris

Eremophila alpestris (Horned Lark)

Synonyms: Alauda alpestris (homotypic); Chionophilos alpestris; Eremophila alpestris flana; Eromophila alpestris; Otocoris alpestris
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), called the shore lark in Europe, is a species of bird in the genus Eremophila. The current genus name is from Ancient Greek eremos, "desert", and phileo, "to love". The specific alpestris is Latin and means "of the high mountains", from Alpes, the Alps.
View Wikipedia Record: Eremophila alpestris


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.24633
EDGE Score: 2.10977


Adult Weight [1]  37 grams
Birth Weight [3]  3 grams
Female Weight [5]  33 grams
Male Weight [5]  37 grams
Weight Dimorphism [5]  12.1 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Temperate grasslands, Arctic tundra, Alpine tundra, Agricultural
Wintering Geography [2]  Widespread U.S./Mexico
Wintering Habitat [2]  Temperate grasslands, Desert scrub, Beaches and estuaries, Agricultural
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Granivore
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  50 %
Diet - Seeds [4]  50 %
Forages - Ground [4]  100 %
Clutch Size [6]  3
Clutches / Year [3]  2
Fledging [5]  18 days
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  140,000,000
Incubation [3]  11 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  8 years
Wing Span [7]  13 inches (.32 m)
Female Maturity [3]  1 year
Male Maturity [3]  1 year


Protected Areas

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Biodiversity Hotspots

Prey / Diet

Halimione portulacoides (sea purslane)[8]
Limonium vulgare (Mediterranean sealavender)[8]
Picoa lefebvrei[9]
Suaeda maritima richii (herbaceous seepweed)[8]

Prey / Diet Overlap


Falco mexicanus (Prairie Falcon)[10]


Range Map

External References

NatureServe Explorer


Attributes / relations provided by
1Storchová, Lenka; Hořák, David (2018), Data from: Life-history characteristics of European birds, Dryad, Dataset,
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
6Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
7British Trust for Ornithology
8J. Dierschke (2002) Food preferences of Shorelarks Eremophila alpestris, Snow Buntings Plectrophenax nivalis and Twites Carduelis flavirostris wintering in the Wadden Sea: Seeds of plants from lower salt marsh communities are preferred, with insects less important., Bird Study, 49:3, 263-269
9MORE ON MYCOPHAGOUS BIRDS, J. A. Simpson, Australasian Mycologist 19 (2) 2000: research paper, p. 49-51
10Prairie falcon prey in the Mojave Desert, California, DA Boyce, Raptor Research 19 (4):128-134 (1985)
11Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
12International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2023-06-13; License: CC BY 4.0