Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Corvidae > Gymnorhinus > Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus

Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus (Pinyon Jay)

Synonyms: Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus
Language: Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The pinyon jay (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus) is a jay between the North American blue jay and the Eurasian jay in size. It is the only member of the genus Gymnorhinus, (monotypic). Its overall proportions are very nutcracker-like and indeed this can be seen as convergent evolution as both birds fill similar ecological niches. The pinyon jay is a bluish-grey coloured bird with deeper head colouring and whitish throat with black bill, legs and feet. The voice is described as a rhythmic krawk-kraw-krawk repeated two or three times.
View Wikipedia Record: Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus

Endangered Species

Status: Vulnerable
View IUCN Record: Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 11.5164
EDGE Score: 3.91333


Adult Weight [1]  105 grams
Birth Weight [3]  6 grams
Female Weight [5]  99 grams
Male Weight [5]  111 grams
Weight Dimorphism [5]  12.1 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Temperate western forests
Wintering Geography [2]  Non-migrartory
Wintering Habitat [2]  Temperate western forests
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Granivore
Diet - Ectothermic [4]  30 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  30 %
Diet - Seeds [4]  40 %
Forages - Canopy [4]  30 %
Forages - Mid-High [4]  30 %
Forages - Understory [4]  20 %
Forages - Ground [4]  20 %
Clutch Size [6]  4
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Fledging [1]  21 days
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  690,000
Incubation [3]  17 days
Mating System [7]  Monogamy
Maximum Longevity [3]  11 years
Snout to Vent Length [1]  11 inches (27 cm)
Wing Span [8]  18 inches (.46 m)
Female Maturity [3]  1 year
Male Maturity [3]  1 year


Protected Areas

Important Bird Areas

Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Baldwin Lake USA A1
East Mojave Peaks USA A1
Wellington-Pine Grove Hills USA A1

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No

Prey / Diet

Pinus edulis (Colorado pinyon)[9]
Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa pine)[9]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Range Map

External References

NatureServe Explorer


Attributes / relations provided by
1Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Balda, R. P. in The Birds of North America No. 605 (eds. Poole, A. & Gill, F.) 1−32 (Birds of North America Inc., Philadelphia, 2002)
6Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
7Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
8Wildlife As Canon Sees It
9Balda, Russell P. and Kamil, Alan, Linking Life Zones, Life History Traits, Ecology, and Spatial Cognition in Four Allopatric Southwestern Seed Caching Corvids (2006). Papers in Behavior and Biological Sciences. Paper 36.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2023-06-13; License: CC BY 4.0