Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Anseriformes > Anatidae > Cygnus > Cygnus columbianus

Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)

Synonyms: Anas columbianus (homotypic); Anas spec; Cygnus colombianus; Cygnus minor; Olor columbianus
Language: French; Spanish


Cygnus columbianus bewickii (Bewick's swan) (Attributes)
Cygnus columbianus columbianus (Whistling swan)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.00812
EDGE Score: 1.79311


Adult Weight [1]  13.724 lbs (6.225 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  179 grams
Female Weight [6]  13.889 lbs (6.30 kg)
Male Weight [6]  15.873 lbs (7.20 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [6]  14.3 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic tundra, Arctic coastal
Wintering Geography [2]  Widespread U.S.
Wintering Habitat [2]  Wetlands, Agricultural
Diet [4]  Herbivore
Diet - Plants [4]  100 %
Forages - Ground [4]  50 %
Forages - Water Surface [4]  50 %
Clutch Size [7]  4
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Fledging [5]  60 days
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  220,000
Incubation [3]  31 days
Mating Display [8]  Ground display
Mating System [8]  Monogamy
Maximum Longevity [3]  24 years
Migration [9]  Intercontinental
Snout to Vent Length [5]  4.428 feet (135 cm)
Speed [10]  41.383 MPH (18.5 m/s)
Wing Span [10]  6.494 feet (1.98 m)
Female Maturity [3]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years


Protected Areas

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Important Bird Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Prey / Diet



Parasitized by 
Amidostomum anseris[12]
Amidostomum cygni[12]
Catatropis cygni[12]
Epomidiostomum orispinum[12]
Sarconema eurycerca[12]

Range Map

External References

NatureServe Explorer


Attributes / relations provided by
1Storchová, Lenka; Hořák, David (2018), Data from: Life-history characteristics of European birds, Dryad, Dataset,
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
6Limpert, RJ, and Earnst, SL 1994. Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus). In The birds of North America. No. 89. Edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC
7Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
8Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
9Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
10Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2023-06-13; License: CC BY 4.0