Animalia > Chordata > Perciformes > Sciaenidae > Aplodinotus > Aplodinotus grunniens

Aplodinotus grunniens (Freshwater drum; Sheephead; Sheepshead)

Synonyms: Aplidonotus grunniens; Corvina richardsoni; Corvina richardsonii; Sciaena grisea; Sciaena oscula
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Wikipedia Abstract

The freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, is a fish endemic to North and Central America. It is the only species in the genus Aplodinotus. The freshwater drum is a member of the family Sciaenidae, and is the only North American member of the group that inhabits freshwater for its entire life. Its generic name, Aplodinotus, comes from Greek meaning "single back", and the specific epithet, grunniens, comes from a Latin word meaning "grunting". It is given to it because of the grunting noise that mature males make. This noise comes from a special set of muscles within the body cavity that vibrate against the swim bladder. The purpose of the grunting is unknown, but due to it being present in only mature males, it is assumed to be linked to spawning.
View Wikipedia Record: Aplodinotus grunniens


Adult Length [2]  37 inches (95 cm)
Brood Dispersal [2]  In the open
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Pelagophils
Brood Guarder [2]  No
Gestation [3]  2 days
Litter Size [2]  50,000
Maximum Longevity [2]  13 years
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Benthic, Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams
Adult Weight [3]  29.306 lbs (13.293 kg)
Diet [1]  Omnivore
Female Maturity [2]  4 years 6 months


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Middle Missouri United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    

Protected Areas

Prey / Diet

Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel)[4]
Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Brackish water mussel)[4]
Rhithropanopeus harrisii (estuarine mud crab)[4]



Range Map

External References

NatureServe Explorer


Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Diet of the Double-Crested Cormorant in Western Lake Erie, Michael T. Bur, Sandra L. Tinnirello, Charles D. Lovell, Jeff T. Tyson, USDA National Wildlife Research Center Symposia, 1997
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2023-06-13; License: CC BY 4.0