Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Picea > Picea mariana

Picea mariana (Black spruce; Bog spruce; Swamp spruce)

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Wikipedia Abstract

Picea mariana (black spruce) is a North American species of spruce tree in the pine family. It is widespread across Canada, found in all 10 provinces and all 3 Arctic territories. Its range extends into northern parts of the United States: in Alaska, the Great Lakes region, and the upper Northeast. It is a frequent part of the biome known as taiga or boreal forest.
View Wikipedia Record: Picea mariana



Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Bloom Period [2]  Late Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  None
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  60 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Hazards [3]  The sawdust, the resin from the trunk and even the needles can cause dermatitis in some people;
Janka Hardness [4]  520 lbf (236 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  16 inches (41 cm)
Scent [3]  The crushed foliage has a strong scent of balsam or lemon balm.
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  404799 / lb (892430 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Conical
Specific Gravity [5]  0.46
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A yellow-orange dye is obtained from the cones; Various native North American Indian tribes made a string from the long roots of this species and used it to stitch the bark of their canoes, to sew baskets etc; The pitch obtained from the trunk has been used as a sealing material on the hulls of canoes; Wood - light, soft, not strong; It weighs 28lb per cubic foot; Since it is a smaller tree than the other spruces, it is not an important lumber source for uses such as construction; However, it is widely used for making boxes, crates etc;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Height [3]  66 feet (20 m)
Width [3]  13.12 feet (4 m)
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 5 Low Temperature: -20 F° (-28.9 C°) → -10 F° (-23.3 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mostly Shady
Soil Acidity [2]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  Moderate
View Plants For A Future Record : Picea mariana

Protected Areas


Emblem of

Newfoundland & Labrador



Shelter for 
Falco columbarius (Merlin)[9]
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (red squirrel)[9]

Range Map


Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
9Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
10Negron, Jose F. 1995. Cone and Seed Insects Associated with Piñon Pine. In: Shaw, Douglas W.; Aldon, Earl F.; LoSapio, Carol, technical coordinators. Desired future conditions for piñon- juniper ecosystems: Proceedings of the symposium; 1994 August 8-12; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 97-106.
11Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2019). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2020-03-21; License: CC BY 4.0