Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Charadriiformes > Scolopacidae > Numenius > Numenius borealis

Numenius borealis (Eskimo Curlew)

Synonyms: Scolopax borealis (homotypic)
Language: French; Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Eskimo curlew or the northern curlew is one of eight species of curlew, and is classed in the genus Numenius. It was one of the most numerous shorebirds in the tundra of western Arctic Canada and Alaska, with approximately two million birds killed per year in the late 1800s. Having not been seen in over 30 years, the Eskimo curlew is now considered possibly extinct. The bird was about 30 cm (12 in) long and fed mostly on berries.
View Wikipedia Record: Numenius borealis

Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Numenius borealis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 10.68
EDGE Score: 5.23047
View EDGE Record: Numenius borealis


Adult Weight [1]  450 grams
Breeding Habitat [2]  Arctic tundra
Wintering Geography [2]  Southern Cone
Wintering Habitat [2]  Tropical grasslands
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  40 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  40 %
Diet - Plants [3]  20 %
Forages - Understory [3]  20 %
Forages - Ground [3]  80 %
Clutch Size [4]  4
Clutches / Year [5]  1
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  50
Migration [6]  Intercontinental
Wing Span [7]  28 inches (.7 m)


Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge IV 8964 South Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Walker Bay Field Station   Nunavut, Canada  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No


Parasitized by 
Kowalewskiella cingulifera[8]
Tetrameres numenii[8]

Range Map

External References

NatureServe Explorer


Attributes / relations provided by
1New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Alaska Department of Fish and Game
6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
7del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2023-06-13; License: CC BY 4.0