Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Suliformes > Phalacrocoracidae > Phalacrocorax > Phalacrocorax urile

Phalacrocorax urile (Red-faced Cormorant)

Synonyms: Pelecanus urile (homotypic); Urile urile (homotypic)

Wikipedia Abstract

The red-faced cormorant, red-faced shag or violet shag (Phalacrocorax urile) is a species of cormorant that is found in the far north of the Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, from the eastern tip of Hokkaidō in Japan, via the Kuril Islands, the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands to the Alaska Peninsula and Gulf of Alaska. The red-faced cormorant is closely related to the pelagic cormorant P. pelagicus, which has a similar range, and like the pelagic cormorant is placed by some authors (e.g. Johnsgaard) in a genus Leucocarbo. Where it nests alongside the pelagic cormorant, the red-faced cormorant generally breeds the more successfully of the two species, and it is currently increasing in numbers, at least in the easterly parts of its range. It is however listed as
View Wikipedia Record: Phalacrocorax urile

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.62381
EDGE Score: 2.03128


Adult Weight [1]  4.742 lbs (2.151 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  48 grams
Female Weight [5]  4.072 lbs (1.847 kg)
Male Weight [5]  5.353 lbs (2.428 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [5]  31.5 %
Breeding Habitat [2]  Coastal cliffs and islands, Coastal marine
Wintering Geography [2]  Pacific Coast
Wintering Habitat [2]  Coastal marine, Rocky intertidal
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [4]  50 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  50 %
Forages - Underwater [4]  100 %
Clutch Size [3]  3
Clutches / Year [1]  1
Egg Length [1]  2.402 inches (61 mm)
Egg Width [1]  1.457 inches (37 mm)
Fledging [1]  56 days
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  130,000
Incubation [6]  31 days
Mating Display [3]  Ground display
Wing Span [6]  3.805 feet (1.16 m)
Female Maturity [1]  2 years 12 months


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Ib 2347132 Alaska, United States
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  

Important Bird Areas

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Japan Japan No

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[7]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[7]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[7]


Parasitized by 
Liliatrema skrjabini[8]
Liliatrema sobolevi[8]
Mioctenopsylla traubi traubi[9]

Range Map

External References


Attributes / relations provided by
1Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Causey, D. (2002) Red-faced cormorant (Phalacrocorax urile). In: The Birds of North America, No. 617. A. Poole & F. Gill (eds) Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America, Inc., 16 pp.
6del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
9International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 Wildfinder Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2023-06-13; License: CC BY 4.0