Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Suliformes > Phalacrocoracidae > Phalacrocorax > Phalacrocorax punctatus

Phalacrocorax punctatus (spotted shag)

Synonyms: Pelecanus punctatus (homotypic); Stictocarbo punctatus; Stictocarbo punctatus punctatus

Wikipedia Abstract

The spotted shag or parekareka (Phalacrocorax punctatus) is a species of cormorant endemic to New Zealand. Originally classified as Phalacrocorax punctatus, it is sufficiently different in appearance from typical members of that genus that to be for a time placed in a separate genus, Stictocarbo, along with another similar species, the Pitt shag.
View Wikipedia Record: Phalacrocorax punctatus


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.48031
EDGE Score: 2.01227


Adult Weight [1]  2.612 lbs (1.185 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  42 grams
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Piscivore
Diet - Fish [3]  50 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  50 %
Forages - Underwater [3]  100 %
Clutch Size [2]  3
Egg Length [1]  2.323 inches (59 mm)
Egg Width [1]  1.457 inches (37 mm)
Incubation [4]  31 days
Mating Display [2]  Ground display
Wing Span [4]  37 inches (.95 m)

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
New Zealand New Zealand Yes

Prey / Diet


Parasitized by 
Parapsyllus longicornis[6]

Range Map

External References


Attributes / relations provided by
1Nathan P. Myhrvold, Elita Baldridge, Benjamin Chan, Dhileep Sivam, Daniel L. Freeman, and S. K. Morgan Ernest. 2015. An amniote life-history database to perform comparative analyses with birds, mammals, and reptiles. Ecology 96:3109
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6International Flea Database
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Species taxanomy provided by GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2023-06-13; License: CC BY 4.0